J Cohn published an early classification of bacteria
(genus name Bacillus) for the first time in 1875.
Ilich Metchnikoff received the Nobel Prize in 1908 with
Ehrlich, for demonstrating phagocytosis - the consumption
of foreign particles and bacteria by the body's own antibodies.
Catherine Evans (1881-1975). Her work in Wisconsin
Dept. of Agriculture led to the identification of bacteria in fresh
milk. Her later research, at the National Institutes of Health
(NIH), improved the treatment of epidemic meningitis
and she became first female president of the American Society for
Microbiology in 1928.
Ella Moore (1903-1994). The first African American
to gain a PhD in microbiology in 1933 at Ohio State University,
where she researched the tuberculosis bacterium.
Later she became the first woman to chair a medical school department
at Howard University.
Craighill Lancefield (1895-1981). Developed a system
of classification for Group A streptococcal bacteria -
the Lancefield Grouping - which identifies bacteria
including those causing scarlet fever, sore throat and erysipelas.
She received the Lasker Award and was elected to the National Academy
Jannasch was one of the world's leading experts
on life around mid-ocean hydrothermal vents. His team discovered
Pyrolobus fumarii, an
Archaea, at the mid-Atlantic ridge in 1996. Holger
died in 1999.
Pasteur (1822 -1895). Developed a method of
immunizing against a disease (chicken cholera) using
a weakened (attenuated) strain of the pathogen in
1880. In 1885 he carried out successful, but unethical, experiments
with rabies on a child. The term virus (poison)
was coined by Pasteur.
von Behring received the Nobel Prize in 1901 for his
work with Shibasaburo Kitasato on the antitoxin serum for diptheria.
Ehrlich in 1912, announced the discovery of an effective
cure for syphilis, the first chemotherapeutic
agent for a bacterial disease.
Pittman (1901-1995). Identified the cause of whooping
cough, which led to the development of an improved vaccine.
She became the first woman to direct a laboratory at the NIH and
was cholera consultant to the World Health Organization and a leader
in the standardization of vaccines.
J Domagk used a chemically-produced antimetabolite
to kill streptococci in mice, in 1935. It was
later used on human patients and he received the 1939 Nobel Prize
for his work.
Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928 whilst
working at St Mary's Hospital in London and published the first
paper on it the following year. He received the Nobel Prize
in 1945, with Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, for their work on
A Hinton (1883-1959). Directed the Massachusetts
State Wasserman Laboratory from 1915 and taught for 30 years at
Harvard University Medical School, becoming full professor there
in 1949. He developed a widely-used test for diagnosing
syphilis. He was instrumental in establishing the
Eisenhower Scholarship at Harvard University.
Shatz, E Bugie and
Selman Waksman discovered streptomycin
in 1944, which was then used to counter tuberculosis.
Selman Waksman received the Nobel Prize in 1952.
Winogradsky, in 1890, isolated nitrifying bacteria
in soil and described the organisms which are responsible for nitrification.
Ivanowski published the first evidence of tobacco
mosaic virus, in 1892.
Van Niel, by his work on photosynthetic bacteria,
in 1931 explained the fixation of carbon-dioxide in plants and suggested
that plants use water as a source of electrons and release oxygen.
Stanley, in 1935, demonstrated the tobacco mosaic
virus remains active even after crystallization. He
received the Nobel Prize in 1946 with Northrop and Sumner.
F L Kilbourne, in 1893 provided evidence of a zoonotic
disease (in this case animal host and arthropod vector) by establishing
that ticks carry Babesia microti.
Reed worked on the viral agent for yellow
fever being transmitted to humans by mosquitoes, which inspired
mosquito eradication and the Yellow Fever Commission in 1900.
Twort, between 1915 and 1917, first discovered a bacterial
virus which was also independently described and named as
a bacteriophage by Felix d'Herrelle.
Peyton Rous was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize for work
he carried out on chickens in 1911, that gave the first experimental
proof of a virus causing cancer.
Prusiner found evidence in 1982 that a class of infections
he called "prions" cause scrapie, a
fatal neurodegenerative disease of sheep and was awarded the Nobel
Prize in 1997.
Montaigner and Robert Gallo
announced in 1983 the discovery of the human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) believed to cause AIDS.
Lister published his study of lactic fermentation
of milk in 1878, using a method of isolating a pure culture of the
Beijerinck developed an enrichment culture
to create the best conditions for growth of required bacterium in
1889. Whilst working on tobacco mosaic virus in 1899, he discovered
that a filtrate free of bacteria can still transmit the disease,
by some other agent.
Koch published a paper on the bacterium
which causes anthrax in 1876. In 1881 he developed
the use of gelatin on glass plates as a means for culturing
bacteria colonies for experiments. He was awarded
the Nobel Prize in 1905 for his work on the Tubercule bacillus of
Jan Kluyver and
Hendrick Jean Louis Donker in 1926 proposed a model suitable
for aerobic and anaerobic organisms, for metabolism in cells
based on the transfer of hydrogen atoms.
Franklin Enders, Thomas
H Weller and Frederick
Chapman Robbins were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954
for developing a technique to grow the poliovirus
in test tube cultures of human tissue, thus enabling the isolation
and study of viruses in the laboratory.
Mitchell proposed the chemiosmotic theory
in 1959, which explains ATP synthesis, solute accumulations/expulsions,
and cell movement. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1978.
Kohler and Cesar Milstein
in 1975, produced specific antibodies that can survive
indefinitely in tissue culture, which can then be
used for diagnostic tests and to study cell function. With
Jerne, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1984.
Griffith discovered transformation in bacteria
in 1928 and established the foundation of molecular genetics.
Avery, Colin MacLeod and
Maclyn McCarty in 1944 took
up Griffith's work and showed that Streptococcus pneumoniae
could transform from an avirulent to a virulent phenotype by the
transfer of DNA.
Beadle and Edward Tatum
published a paper in 1941 on fungus experiments, which demonstrated
that specific genes are expressed through action of designated enzymes
the "one gene - one enzyme" concept. They were
awarded the Nobel Prize with Lederberg in 1958.
Lederberg and Edward Tatum
published the first paper on conjugation in bacteria
in 1946. Joshua Lederberg and Norton Zinder showed that a
phage of Salmonella typhimurium can carry DNA from
one bacterium to another and reported on transduction
(transfer of genetic information by viruses) in 1952.
Hershey and Martha Chase
suggested in 1952 that only DNA is required for
viral replication, after using radioactive isotopes to track
protein and DNA.
Delbruck and Salvador Luria,
demonstrated statistically in 1943 that inheritance in bacteria
follow Darwin's principles and that mutant bacteria
occurring randomly can still bestow viral resistance without the
virus being present. They received the Nobel Prize with Hershey
Matthew Meselson used phage-infected bacteria to confirm
the existence of messenger RNA in 1961.
Wilkins and James
Watson were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1962 for describing
the double-helix structure of DNA.
This was based on the X-ray crystallography of DNA done by Rosalind
Franklin, who had died of cancer four years earlier.
Yanofsky and colleagues in 1964, defined the relationship
between the order of mutatable sites in the gene coding
for Escherichia coli.
Jacob and Jacques
Monod (together with David
Perrin and Carmen
Sanchez) proposed the operon concept for
control of bacteria gene action. Jacob, Monod and Lwoff were
awarded the Nobel Prize in 1965.
Nirenberg and J H Matthaei
realized in 1961 that the triplet UUU must code for
phenylalanine and thus started to decipher the genetic code.
Nirenberg, Robert Holley and Har Gorbind Khorana were awarded the
Nobel Prize in 1968.
Cohen, Annie Chang,
Robert Helling and Herbert
Boyer in 1973, showed that recombinant DNA
molecules will reproduce if inserted into bacteria cells, this paved
the way for gene modification and cloning.
Temin and David Baltimore
independently discovered reverse transcriptase in
RNA viruses in 1970, establishing a pathway for genetic information
flow from RNA to DNA. With Dulbecco
they were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1975.
Woese in 1977, used ribosomal RNA analysis
to identify Archaea whose genetic makeup is distinct
from, but related to, both Bacteria and Eucarya.
Sanger was the first British scientist to be awarded
two Nobel Prizes. He received his first Nobel Prize in 1958
for discovering the sequence of amino acids in the
hormone insulin. Sanger, Walter Gilbert and
Berg received the Nobel Prize in 1980 for their work on the chemical
structure of genes.
Mullis used a heat-stable enzyme to establish Polymerase
Chain Reaction (PCR) technology and amplify
target DNA in 1986. He received the Nobel Prize in 1993.
Venter, Hamilton Smith,
Claire Fraser and colleagues
determined the first complete genome sequence of a
microorganism - Haemophilus influenzae RD, in 1995.
to What is Microbiology?